The use of various plant-based cooking oils has become a significant component of the modern diet. Oils contribute essential fatty acids (EFAs) and polyphenols that can offer unique health benefits. Each seed, nut, or fruit used as the source for any oil has a variety of qualities that may be influential on cellular physiology, inflammatory pathways, and other areas of human health. Their impact can be either positive or negative on the body based on the different qualities of each, including its composition, processing, refinement, among other factors. Because of their significance in our current diet and their influence on health, it’s important to understand not only what your best choices are, but also why – so you can better navigate the often-confusing public health messaging surrounding them.